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Thousand-cankers Disease in Arkansas

Thousand-cankers disease (Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)) is a fungal pathogen affecting most of the North American species of walnuts (Juglans L.).  Some walnuts are moderately susceptible, but others such as black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) are highly susceptible.  Thousand-cankers disease is unique among invasive pests in being, in a sense, a home-grown invasive pest.  It is native to western North America.  The fungus that causes thousand-cankers disease was first identified and reported in 2010.  Based on descriptions of symptoms, it is suspected of killing walnut trees as far back as the early 1990′s.  To date, the disease has not been found in Arkansas; but both black walnut and butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) are native to Arkansas.

Walnut killed by thousand-cankers disease

What is thousand-cankers disease?

  • Thousand-cankers disease is a fungal disease spread by the walnut twig beetle
  • Thousand-cankers disease is native to the western US but not to the eastern US
  • Black walnut and butternut are highly susceptible to thousand-cankers disease
  • Thousand-cankers disease was found in the eastern US in 2010
  • Thousand-cankers disease has not been found in Arkansas . . . yet
  • Arkansas has established an external black walnut quarantine

Image courtesy of Curtis Utley, CSUE, Bugwood.org

Read more about thousand-cankers disease
 Symptoms of thousand-cankers disease

What are the symptoms of thousand-cankers disease?

  • Thinning of the crown of black walnuts or butternuts
  • Limbs dying in the top of black walnut or butternut trees
  • Pin-head size entrance and exit holes
  • Walnut twig beetle entrance holes surrounded by cankers on young twigs
  • Walnut twig beetle galleries under the bark

Image courtesy of Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

Read more about the symptoms of thousand-cankers disease
 Walnut twig beetle

Who spreads thousand-cankers disease?

  • Thousand-cankers disease is spread by the walnut twig beetle
  • Walnut twig beetle can be spread when infested nursery stock is moved
  • Walnut twig beetle can be spread when infested walnut wood is moved
  • Thousand-cankers disease can be moved when walnut firewood is moved

Image courtesy of Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

Find out more about how thousand-cankers disease is spread
 Walnuts killed by thousand-cankers disease

How will thousand-cankers disease affect you?

  • Loss of black walnut and maybe butternut from our ecosystems and yards
  • Loss of a valuable forest resource for landowners
  • Loss of a prized decorative wood
  • Loss of a flavorful nut appreciated by many

Image courtesy of Curtis Utley, CSUE, Bugwood.org

Learn more about the impact of thousand-cankers disease on you
 Man hauling walnut and thousand-cankers disease

What can we do about thousand-cankers disease?

  • Do not import walnut nursery stock from states infested with thousand-cankers disease
  • Do not import hardwood firewood from states infested with thousand-cankers disease
  • Do not import unprocessed walnut wood from states infested with thousand-cankers disease
  • Report any thousand-cankers disease symptoms in the walnut trees around you

Image courtesy of Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

Learn to prevent the spread of thousand-cankers disease

 Map of thousand-cankers disease infested US states

Where is thousand-cankers disease?

  • Thousand-cankers disease is native to the southwestern US where in infests Arizona walnut
  • Thousand-cankers disease has been confirmed in nine western states
  • Thousand-cankers disease has been confirmed in six states in the native range of black walnut
  • Thousand-cankers disease has not been confirmed in Arkansas

Image courtesy of www.thousandcankers.com

Find the locations of thousand-cankers disease infestations

 

Resources

Documents

Circular 11, Regulations on Plant Diseases and Pests (Arkansas - skip to page 54 for TCD information)

Diagnosing Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut

Emergency Quarantine of Thousand Cankers Disease

Pathway Assessment:  Geosmithia sp. and Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman movement from the western into the eastern United States

PEST ALERT - Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease of Black Walnut

Pest Alert: Thousand Cankers Disease

Questions and Answers about Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut

The Indiana Quarantine for Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) of Black Walnut Trees

Thousand Cankers Disease & the Walnut Twig Beetle

Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut (Geosmithia morbida)

Walnut Thousand Cankers Disease Alert

Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease: Field Identification Guide

Videos

The Dangers of Thousand Cankers Disease

Tree Diseases

Walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorous juglandis):  The Documentary

Web Sites

Exotic and Invasive Pests: Thousand Cankers Disease and the Walnut Twig Beetle in California

Missouri Agriculture: Thousand Cankers Disease of Black Walnut

Thousand Cankers Disease

Thousand Cankers Disease / Walnut Twig Beetle

Thousand Cankers Disease: A Red Alert for Walnut