UACES Facebook General Info

General Info

November 26, 2016

Question

This bush came from Texas.  It is about 15' tall.  It is an evergreen and blooms in the spring and again in the fall. The bees and butterflies love it. It is aromatic and you get a pleasant odor when you get within 10-15 yards from it. What is this plant?

    Picture of loquat                          

Answer

The plant in the picture is a loquat.  This tree is not common in Arkansas, but can be grown.  It blooms in the fall and sets its edible fruit in early winter to mature in late winter.  A well-established loquat tree can withstand temperatures to about 10 degrees without serious injury, but the flowers and fruit are killed at temperatures below about 27. Since they blooms in late fall to early winter and must mature its fruit during the winter months we would rarely ever get any fruit in Arkansas, since our average winter low is usually around 15 in central and southern Arkansas and 10 in north Arkansas.


 

August 27, 2016

Question

I have attached some photos of trees in our yard next to the house that have been attacked by worms. As you can see, one tree is evidently dead and the second tree seriously wounded. Can you identify the type of worms and advise what to do about them? Are these worms a threat to other types of shrubbery? If so, what do we do to protect the other plants?  Can either of the trees be saved given their current state of health?

Answer

Unfortunately there isn’t one correct answer that works for every situation. It all depends on the tree species, how much area you are covering and how deeply and what type of soil you have.  For example, a dogwood tree can suffer from even a mild covering, where the deep rooted bald cypress can handle it in stride.  If you are just trying to cover exposed roots, why not just use some mulch.      


 

July 16, 2016

Question

I have attached some photos of trees in our yard next to the house that have been attacked by worms. As you can see, one tree is evidently dead and the second tree seriously wounded. Can you identify the type of worms and advise what to do about them? Are these worms a threat to other types of shrubbery? If so, what do we do to protect the other plants?  Can either of the trees be saved given their current state of health?

Answer

Wow, you have an impressive case of bagworms.  These insects know how to use camouflage, building their protective covering out of the plant they are feeding on.   Bagworms pass the winter as eggs inside the bags with up to 300 eggs inside each bag.  The eggs hatch in mid-May and the tiny larvae crawl out to feed. Each uses silk and bits of plant material to make a small bag that protects and camouflages it as during feeding and growth.  They can also move from plant to plant when small, spinning strands of silk which they then use to fly in the wind. Bagworm caterpillars feed for about four to six weeks, constructing and expanding the bag as they grow and feed, and withdrawing into it when disturbed.   Bagworms prefer needle type evergreens—junipers, Eastern red cedars, Leyland cypress and arborvitae in particular, but will feed on deciduous trees occasionally.  In large amounts, the caterpillars can defoliate plants. Heavy infestations over several consecutive years, especially when coupled with other stresses, can lead to plant death.   Needle-type evergreen plants are the slowest to rebound, and as much damage as the totally brown one has, I would cut my losses and remove. The other one can be salvaged, but sprays are no longer effective.  By now your bagworms are probably done feeding and in the resting or pupal stage.  This fall, males will emerge from the bag going in search for bags containing immobile females. After mating, the female lays several hundred eggs inside the bag, and then she leaves the bag and dies. The eggs remain in the bag on the plant until they hatch the following May.   Hand pick and destroy as many of the bags as you can to reduce problems next year.  Destroy the plant that you are removing.  If you have this problem annually, you may want to be proactive and use a preventative insecticide approach beginning mid-May next year.  One application a week with BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) or similar insecticide will work. Three applications a year should suffice. 


July 16, 2016

Question

I live in Cave Springs and I am a beekeeper and I would like to know if Sourwood trees will grow here. The bees love sourwood trees plus they are a beautiful tree even if I decide to quit keeping bees, but I can’t find anyone that know anything about them. I know Crystal Bridges has planted 2-3 of them, but they are still pretty small trees. I finally found a nursery that is fairly close by that says they will grow. I would like a second opinion.

Answer

Sourwood trees are beautiful, small trees up to 25 feet in height.  This member of the azalea family has pretty white panicles of blooms in late spring, followed by one of the prettiest red fall foliage colors of any tree growing.  It is not as common in nurseries as other trees, and it does need a bit of TLC to get established.  It likes an acidic, well-drained soil.  It is not tolerant of heavy soils, or too much moisture, or droughty conditions.  But once established it is a gorgeous tree, and well worth having in the garden, bees or no bees.


 May 28, 2016

 Question I'm trying to decide if this is a tree to save or destroy.  We are replacing a fence and it is in the way.  Do I destroy it or try to transplant it?

 

Picture of sassafrass tree

Answer The tree in question is sassafras, a great small tree.  It is one of two species of native trees that have three different leaf shapes on the same tree. The other tree that shares the leaf variability is a common mulberry.  Sassafras trees form a taproot, which can make transplanting difficult, but give it a try.  It will wilt pretty badly for a while with the shock of transplant, but keep it watered, and hope for the best. 


 February 27, 2016

Question

I have a Bay Leaf Tree and I am wondering if it can be left outside.  We live in Hot Springs Village.  

 

AnswerWhile it is not considered 100% hardy in central Arkansas, I have overwintered two in containers in a protected spot outdoors for the past two winters.  I put my plant between the house and the shrubs for the winter then bring it out where it gets morning sun and afternoon shade for the summer. If you want to plant it in the ground, plant it on the northeast side.  Full afternoon sun would cause more fluctuations in winter temperatures and would pose a problem. 


 February 1, 2016

QuestionI have had some dead branches removed in some of my trees and there are some dead spots on the trunk.  Is there some special tar to put on the places without bark to help "heal the wound"?  I can get regular tar from the Hardware store or the new Plastic/synthetic tar.  What do you suggest?

 

AnswerTar should never be used, nor any wound dressing.  They make you feel like you are doing something to help, when in reality, they can sometimes hinder the recovery process.  Trees do not heal like humans.  Once wounded, they can cover up or callous over the wound, but never “heal”.  Keeping the decayed wood cut out and the surface as clean as possible is all you should do.  Internal decay can continue, so over time the trees may become weaker. Regular care with water in the dry periods and a little fertilization annually is an added help.


 January 16, 2016

QuestionWe received a decorative tree face for Christmas.  Are those okay to stick on trees?

 

Answer

Everyone has an opinion on the safety of poking holes into trees, but people have been doing it for years with the old clothes lines, or hanging bird feeders or wind chimes.  Be aware any time a wound is made, it can be a potential source of infection, but some trees are more forgiving than others. I would not intentionally poke holes or nails onto a thin skinned tree like a dogwood or Japanese maple, but on large, woody mature trees, a few holes should not do much damage.   It is when people girdle a tree, cut all the way around that can kill a tree.  I would find a large, healthy tree and add your whimsical face and enjoy.


December 19, 2015

Question

I think this has been the most beautiful late fall for the trees. The Bradford pear, sweet gums and crepe myrtles have been great this year. Why do you think this was a better year than we saw the past few?  

 

Answer

I agree that for the trees that did not shed their leaves early, it has been a spectacular fall.  In addition to the trees you mentioned, the Japanese maples, gingko, and red maples were stunning, and some still are.  We have had ideal conditions for leaf color with cool nights and warm days.  The rains in October saved us after the dry September.  We also have had several light frosts, but the majority of central and southern Arkansas has still not seen a hard killing frost, so the leaves are still on the trees.  If you think back to the past two falls, we had extremely early hard freezes, which occurred before fall color had fully set in, and before the abscission layers formed on the leaves.  Many crape myrtles and Japanese maples retained foliage all winter and had winter damage because of this early frost.  Our late season has allowed us to enjoy the fall colors much longer this year and hopefully has the trees better prepared for the winter ahead.  


 December 5, 2015

QuestionI have a twelve year old Bloodgood maple which has small holes in the bark that I just noticed. They are seeping sap.  What is happening?

 

Answer

Are the holes scattered or in a pattern—either straight up and down the trunk or in a ring around the trunk? If they are scattered it could be an indication that you have a boring insect.  If the holes are patterned you would have woodpecker or sapsucker activity.  Depending on how thin the outer bark is and how frequently they feed, you can get some sap bleeding. It won’t hurt the tree, but it can be unsightly. Scare devices or wrapping the trunk with a tree wrap temporarily can help.    

 

 November 28, 2015

Question

I started some avocado trees from seed early in the year.  I do not know what variety they are. This is the first time I have been successful in growing them.  They are planted outside in very large pots.  One of them is now 4 feet tall and another one is 31/2 feet tall. It will be impossible to move them inside this winter. How can I protect them? 


Answer

Avocado trees are definitely tropical plants and will not survive outdoors unprotected.  If you can move them into a garage or under your house in the crawl space that could help them survive.  If that is not possible, if you can move them behind your shrubs and adjacent to the house that will help.  Then wrap the tops with sheets or some type of breathable material and heavily mulch the base of the plants and hope for the best.  


 November 14, 2015

QuestionA couple of years ago we purchased two palm trees and planted them in large pots to have around the pool.  We were concerned about wintering so one year we put them in the cellar with terrible results.  Last year we covered pots and all with leaves with also poor results.  Would it be better to plant them in the ground?  We live in Paris

 

AnswerIt all depends on what variety of palms you are growing.  There are numerous hardy palms that will survive uncovered outside in most winters.  The past two colder than normal winters may have caused some discoloration, but they came back great.  If you don’t know what varieties you have, then protection is needed, unless you are willing to do a Hail Mary and see what happens. For hardiness sake, though, they would need to be planted in the ground. Plants in containers have a more limited root system and the soil will get colder than the soil at ground level.   If you want to move them inside, put them in a garage or under the crawl space of your house now.  They won’t look great when you bring them out, but they will not have frozen and died, so you can cut them back and wait for them to leaf out next spring.  In the ground, I have had folks build a chicken wire frame around figs and other mildly hardy plants, and lightly fill this up with leaves. I have had others cover the whole frame with Remay (white protective cloth) and leave that covered.  Last year I over-wintered two bay leaf trees just by moving the pots between my shrubs and my house. They didn’t have a burned leaf on them this spring


(October 2012)

Question My co-workers and I have a bet, and you get to decide. Will we or will we not have any fall color this year? Some of us say the summer was so bad that leaves will just turn brown, while others say they have trees in their yard that already are beginning to turn. What say you?

AnswerIn some respects, you are both right. Trees that were not well maintained, may have died or dropped all their leaves already — and they will not have a great fall show. However, those trees with a full set of leaves are beginning to color up and our current weather conditions are ideal — warm, sunny days and cool nights, coupled with a bit of moisture. I think we will probably have a nice show of fall color, mixed with dead trees!


(December 2012)

QuestionIn the spring of 2010 I planted four Bradford pear trees. They are growing straight up; they don’t seem to be spreading out like I thought they should. Should I cut the tops out of them? If so, when should I do this?

AnswerTopping a tree is a practice that should NEVER be done to a tree you want to keep long-term. When you remove the entire top crown of a tree, you create internal decay in the tree. It will eventually put out more branches and look like a tree, but the damage done internally will last for a lifetime and makes the tree structurally unsound. However, you can remove certain branches and take the top buds off of each branch you leave, without removing the crown, and this will encourage branching. The top bud on each branch has dominance, and left unchecked, will grow straight and taller. Removing the top bud (or even going lower on a branch) will encourage lower buds to grow, which should start to give your tree a fuller top. Pruning done correctly will give you a fuller and healthier tree. Keep in mind that many ornamental pear varieties, particularly Bradford are very susceptible to storm damage, and they often have too many branches which cause them to resemble a lollipop on a stick and they break easily.


(November 2012)

QuestionSomeone told me last week that if you top a sweetgum tree it won't produce gumballs for 4 or 5 years. Is this true? I have a huge sweetgum tree in the backyard that my wife loves for the shade it produces, but I hate the gumballs I have to deal with all year long. I want to cut it down, but if topping it will stunt the gumballs, I'm willing to try that.

AnswerNot true, and very, very bad for the tree to be topped. Topping a tree leads to a hollow, unsafe tree so should never be done. Sweetgum balls can be a nuisance, but the fall color and the overall shade make it worthwhile. If you grow hostas, the sweetgum balls make a great mulch to keep slugs away, and if neighborhood cats use your garden as a litter box, sweetgum mulch keeps them away. I am still surprised that some enterprising gardener hasn’t bagged the stuff and sold it for either or both uses. Maybe you have a new cottage industry in your yard. 


 Question When should we stop watering trees and bushes in central Arkansas?

AnswerThere is really not a cut off date for watering. It all depends on weather conditions. If you remember back to the horrid drought of 1980, we actually had more drought damage on trees and shrubs, because the drought continued all winter, and people quit watering. We have been fortunate to have rain every few weeks lately, so additional watering isn’t required unless you are planting new shrubs, trees and winter annuals. Then you will need to water a bit. Most plants will do fine without additional water for two to three weeks at a time in the winter months, but container plants will still need to be watered, especially prior to a hard freeze. Dry plants will be more sensitive to winter injury.


(Aug. 2012)

Question I am hoping you can identify a tree by description without a picture. This tree has thorns on the truck and branches. We saw this in the wooded area just as you cross over the Two Rivers Bridge over the Arkansas River. I have never seen a tree of this size with thorns.

AnswerMy guess would be a honey locust - Gleditsia triacanthos. They have compound leaves with a lot of small leaflets on them, and the trunk and branches can have some deadly thorns. They can form a large shade tree, but the thorniness is the reason most home gardeners don’t want them in their yard. Plant breeders have bred a thornless variety which has good fall color and makes a good yard tree. A smaller tree that is native, and is covered in thorns is the Devil’s Walkingstick – Aralia spinosa.


(July 2012)

Question I was recently on vacation and thought my sprinkler system was set, but when I came home my Japanese maple looked pretty crispy. Do you think it is dead, or if I water it light crazy now, it might come back?

AnswerThe drought, coupled with high temperatures has really taken its toll on many plants, but trees in particular. If the leaves on your tree are falling off, that is a better sign than if they are brown and shriveled, but still attached to the tree. Water and keep your fingers crossed. I am appalled at how many trees are dying along the roadsides and in yards that are not watered. Two years in a row is tough on plants.


(May 2012)

Question We have four large (20 feet tall) Japanese maple trees in our front bed. They are 15-20 years old and have seemed very healthy. Last week, my across the street neighbor cut down one of his Japanese maple trees in his front yard because it had died. Seemed like it died fairly quickly, just a year or two and it was gone. He has another one also in his front yard that is has some dead major branches. Then, I took a closer look at my trees and discovered that they all have many dead branches, although they are small branches, no major ones. I am concerned that there may be some kind of disease. What should I do?

AnswerJapanese maples were hit hard by last summer’s extreme heat and drought. If they weren’t watered, they may have died or had some major damage. My neighbor had a large old Japanese maple that is totally dead this year. Plants that were stressed would be more susceptible to insect and disease attacks. Check out the trees, looking for any holes or splits in the stems or leaf spots on the foliage. Remove any dead branches. A little thinning never hurt a Japanese maple. Water when dry and hope for the best. If you do see signs of insects or diseases, take a sample in to your local extension office.


(March 2012)

Question After an exhausting search last year, I was finally able to locate and purchase a Red Buckeye Tree for my Mother's 80th birthday. Now I think the tree is dead. I would greatly appreciate any advice on this type of tree and where I may purchase another if needed

AnswerLast growing season was tough on established plants, so doubly hard on newly planted trees and shrubs. Give your buckeye a chance to start growing before you start replanting. Buckeyes form a taproot quickly when grown from seed, which makes them fairly tough. I have not looked at our nurseries for a buckeye for awhile but I would not expect them to be that difficult to find. Check with your local nurseries, and if they don’t carry them, two that carry a wide variety of natives include Pine Ridge Gardens in London, Arkansas and Custom Landscape in Mt. Vernon, Arkansas


(January 2012)

Question In late September we drove from our home in Bella Vista to Colorado. It was time for the Aspens to shine. Some were bright gold, some were just turning and some were still green. Overall they put on a beautiful show. We would like to plant a small grove of Aspens on our property near the water line. Since the Aspens thrive in Colorado, one would assume our winters would not be a problem. How about the summers? Is it entirely too hot here for the Aspens to survive? Haven't noticed Aspens in Arkansas. Does that mean they won't grow in our rocky red dirt? I remember being told Aspens in a grove are technically one organism sending out shoots underground to grow new trees. Does that mean the surrounding area must be constantly monitored for new shoots if the size of the "grove" would be problematic, say near a concrete cart path?

AnswerAspens are quite cold tolerant, but really don’t like heat and humidity, so they would not be happy campers in Arkansas. That being said, I have seen at least one aspen tree in Arkansas, in Conway to be exact. I am not sure if it is still living after our past two summers, but it survived for several years. Bella Vista would stand an easier chance of growing them than Conway, so if you want to give it a try, go for it. I would not plant a grove but two or three and see how they do. Your best bet would be the quaking aspen – Populus tremuloides. If they are happy and thriving, they do sucker which aids in the grove effect, but I doubt that would ever happen in Arkansas. Make sure you give them ample water, because drought tolerance is not one of their attributes.


 Question I have always loved the Japanese maples and I just planted a young 4' tall one outside of my daughters window(partial sun, shaded in the morning) . Apparently my errant puppy of 8 months shares the same affection for the maple as I do. He chewed through the bark about 12" to 14" up. The tree has since been protected from the wayward canine. What (if anything) can I do to help this tree recover?

AnswerIt all depends on how deeply the puppy ate into the trunk as to whether it survives or not. If it is only on one side of the tree, and he just gnawed on the outer bark, cleaning up the wound by scraping off any loose bark and then waiting is all you can do. If he chewed completely around the tree, it could girdle the tree which will kill it. Only time will tell, but tree paints or wound dressings won’t help. Making sure the wound is clean and protecting from further damage is really all you can do. 


 Question Could the thorny seeded tree you talked about Dec. 24 be a sweetgum instead of a chesnut? I don’t think there are any chesnut trees left in Arkansas. Without a picture, how can I be sure of the difference? What about a horse chesnut? I think they are poisonous

AnswerIt certainly is a possibility that the thorny fruits were sweetgums. I had chestnuts on my mind, since someone sent me a sample and asked for identification recently. Chestnuts were practically wiped out in the United State due to chesnut blight, but they are not extinct, and there are millions of seedlings nationwide. We have been seeing a resurgence of the American chesnut tree in Arkansas. I have seen fruiting trees from Baxter County, to Petit Jean, Little Rock and Monticello. It’s fruit has lots of spines on the outside and a narrow, toothed leaf and edible inside nut. The American chesnut foundation is also breeding disease resistant varieties which should soon be available to the public. The sweetgum tree does have thorny smaller fruit, but you won't get too much inside, nor is it edible and it is very widespread in our state. The single leaves look almost like stars with five points. The horse chesnut is also called a buckeye and while it does have a large poisonous seed, the pods have small thorns, but it is not as common in our state as the red buckeye, which has . As with all members of the Aesculus (horsechestnut family) they have compound leaves with 5-7 leaflets. I have attached pictures of all three for proper identification.


(December 2011)

Question I have a 25 year old dogwood tree that is blooming now. I noticed a couple full sized blooms last Saturday. Sunday I noticed one additional branch full of smaller blooms. How unusual is this? The dry hot summer has stressed the tree, which has about half its leaves withered and brown. I had never pruned the tree, until July of this year, when I remove quite a few of the lower limbs to allow sunlight to shrubs and various plants under the dogwood. I painted the wounds where I cut off the branches.

AnswerYou are not alone--many spring bloomers have had some errant blooms this fall. My loropetalum shrub is in full bloom right now! Many of our plants set their flower buds early and shut down early to deal with our horrendous summer. Then we finally got some rain, it turned cool, heated up again and they thought spring had arrived. There is nothing you can do but enjoy the blooms. Assess the damage next spring to your tree from the summer heat and prune as needed after they finish blooming next spring. Tree paints for pruning cuts are not needed--a nice clean cut is all you want.


 Question We have a tree by our driveway, we don't know what kind it is. Every year it has balls on it that are about as big as a golf ball, they have thorns on them that hurt if you pick them up. There are so many on our driveway it is hard not to step on them, sometimes it is hard not to fall. Is there anything we can do so these balls won't come on the tree next year?

AnswerSounds to me like you have a chestnut tree. If you can get to the nuts inside—a thorny problem, they are quite tasty. Unfortunately, there isn’t much you can do to prevent them from setting fruit. On the positive side, we are gaining success in growing chestnuts again. For many years they were wiped out by the chestnut blight.


(Dec. 2010)

Question Do all trees struck by lightning eventually die? The tree in the attached picture was hit this past August and is continuing to lose its bark.

AnswerAll trees that are struck by lightning do not die, but there aren't any clear cut guidelines telling you if your tree will or will not die. I have seen some trees with what appeared to be horrible damage, survive, and some that had very little visible damage, die. Make sure you contact your homeowners insurance to let them know it happened and assess how well the tree leafs out this spring. From the look of the damage, you will probably have internal decay in the trunk, even if the tree survives, so assessing where it is in the yard and the potential for damage, should it fall is also important. Decay is not something that happens overnight, but it will happen. Plants will callous over wounds, but the internal decay will continue over time.


(November 2010)

Question About five years ago I planted a rooted magnolia that was about a foot high. Today, it is about 10 feet high and healthy...except it has never blossomed! Before I cut it down, I wanted to check with you to see if t here is any way I can make it bloom. There is a huge magnolia tree across the street from me so shouldn't that take care of any necessary pollination?

AnswerA traditional southern magnolia can take 8-10 years before it begins blooming, so I think patience is in order. The stately Magnolia grandiflora is a huge tree at maturity and often gets too large for a common landscape. For that reason, many are planting the smaller ‘Little Gem’ magnolia or ‘Bracken's Brown Beauty’. The leaves and flowers are about 1/2 the size of the standard, but an added benefit, besides the smaller size is that they bloom at a very young age. For your tree, just enjoy the evergreen foliage. Once it begins to bloom, provided it has plenty of sun, you should have flowers every year.


(Oct. 2010)

Question Please help! I have lost three large pine trees since the spring and my neighbor has simply given in and had all his pines cut down. The man at the tree service said the culprit is pine beetles--what can be done to stop them and save the remaining trees?

AnswerI wish I had a better answer for you. Unfortunately, there are several common species of bark beetles that attack pines—the Southern pine beetle, the turpentine beetle and the IPS engraver beetle. Probably the most devastating is the Southern pine beetle. Some pine tree species are more susceptible than others as are weak or damaged trees. Trees damaged by lightning, ice, or drought and other natural events or construction are more likely to be infested. In the spring, beetles emerge and colonize new host trees. Infested trees decline rapidly especially during hot, dry summer months and infestations may spread from tree to tree as additional beetles are attracted to the site of infestation. Multiple generations may be completed within a year. If there are large populations they can attack healthy trees. While there are some sprays on the market, timing and repeated spraying would be needed, so they really are not all that effective—and they are for prevention, not cure. The best defense is a strong offense—keep your trees healthy and prune out any damage that occurs from weather. The turpentine beetle and the IPS engraver beetle often come in to finish off the trees that are too far gone to save anyway. 


 Question My neighbor recently ran into my Bradford Pear with his truck, knocking off a large section of bark. What can I do to treat the damaged area in hopes of saving the tree? Picture attached.

AnswerOnce a tree is wounded, the wound will always be there, but you can help by cleaning up the wound. Cut off any lose or jagged bark and try to keep it as clean as possible. Time will tell how deep the wound went and how much, if any damage will occur to the top. Have you seen any signs of stress to the top of the tree that is on the side where the damage is? Wound dressings or tree paints are ineffective, the best remedy is a clean wound.


Question I have never heard of this, but my young dogwood (about 3 years old) is getting ready to bloom! Is it normal for a dogwood to bloom in October?

AnswerFlower buds should be set—dogwoods often set them as early as late July some years, but blooming is another story. Are they just full of buds or actually showing flower color?


(September 2010)

Question I have attached photos of what I believe to be some kind of pear. As you will notice, the fruit is small about the size of a ping pong ball, but the texture and flesh very much resemble a pear, as does the leaf and limbs. Please let me know what you think that it is. The reason for the inquiry is that there are 3 of these trees along the Arkansas River and the deer like to camp out around them endlessly searching for dropping fruit. If you know what this tree is, could you possibly tell me where I could purchase some of them or if the seed might be viable, Thanks.

AnswerYou will find many seedling pears around the state. The Bradford pear and other ornamental pears are all selections of the Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana). The fruits can run the size of a bb to a crabapple. When the birds drop the seeds, there is a great deal of variability in the resulting seedling pear. While deer may flock to them, and probably birds and squirrels, many of these seedling pears are becoming a nuisance plant--quite invasive. You will also find that many of these seedlings have thorns on them too.


(August 2010)

Question I was inspecting a house in Eureka Springs this week and saw this cluster on a tree that I never noticed before. I was told it was a magnolia tree, but it didn't have the glossy leaves. I couldn’t find it in my tree book. What are your thoughts?

AnswerI think it is a slightly deformed seed pod on a Magnolia soulangiana--the tulip or saucer magnolia. It should have light pink to purple flowers in the spring before the foliage. This magnolia is deciduous, losing its leaves every fall, thus it doesn’t have the thick, glossy leaves of the evergreen Magnolia grandiflora.


 Question This came up in our flower garden three years ago we cut it down first year. We left it alone last year, and now this year it has multiplied to three stalks. It's about six feet tall and the leaves are about 14 inches wide. So far it hasn't produced any flowers.

AnswerWe get samples of this every year. I often refer to it as the Jack-in-the-beanstalk tree, because of its rampant young growth. The tree is Royal Paulownia or Empress Tree—Paulownia tomentosa. This year many very young trees bloomed with what looked like purple candelabras—I think last year’s copious rainfall had something to do with that. Normally they don’t start blooming until they are around 5 to 7 years old. The tree does produce pretty purple flowers but then they form woody seed capsules which disperse their seed and you end up with weedy seedlings coming up everywhere. Because they are fast growing they also are fairly soft wooded and can start falling apart with age. All in all, not a great yard tree.


(March 2010)

Question Can you tell me what the tree is that's blooming now along the roadsides. It has white blossoms similar to the pear tree and it blooms around the same time, before dogwoods but after the wild plums. I call it the 'popcorn' tree because that's what it reminds me of, but I would really like to know its true name. Is it a variety of wild pear? Someone told me a ‘popcorn’ tree has white fruit, not flowers.

AnswerI do think it is a wild pear tree that is blooming now. The ornamental ‘Bradford’ pear has been grossly overplanted in the south and seedlings are emerging everywhere. They are all callery pear seedlings—Pyrus calleryana. Flowers are white and fruit size varies from bb to marble or crabapple sized fruits with thorns common on the stems. While they are attractive when in bloom, they are overtaking native vegetation and becoming a bit of a problem in areas of the state. The ‘Popcorn’ tree you are referring to is also considered an invasive plant but only in southern Arkansas and other southern states. It is Sapium sebiferum, also known as Chinese Tallow tree. It has yellowish flowers which produce a white waxy fruit in the fall which looks like a piece of popped popcorn, thus the common name.


(April 2010)

Question I live in west Little Rock on a very secluded lot with lots of trees and a small stream in the front. My beds are a mess! There are weeds everywhere and they continue to come back no matter how many times I pull them or spray them with Round Up. I have tried a pre-emergent, to no avail. The shrubs are overgrown and I have WAY too many trees just growing on top of each other. I need help along with information and education. Where do I start? A landscape architect? A nursery? A tree/lawn service? I am so overwhelmed that I am paralyzed! I am hosting an outdoor wedding party on June 19 and I break out in a cold sweat every time I think about it, which is hard to do considering I am in a constant state of hot flashes! I would GREATLY appreciate any advice you could give me or any names you would recommend that I contact. My lot is a little over an acre and what seemed like the perfect situation at the time we bought the property, but has doubled the trouble, we also own the lot next door that is empty except for TREES!

AnswerI can’t make specific suggestions on who to hire, but there are many qualified landscaping folks out there who could come and help get your yard in order. I would start with some of your local nurseries and ask them who they recommend to do work. Ask for references and see some of the work they have done and then choose. From the pictures you sent, it doesn’t look that bad—just very natural. A good layer of mulch will go a long way in helping to keep weeds down. Pre-emergent products only work on annual weeds, not perennials, and from the looks of things, that seems to be more your problem. I saw poison ivy and Virginia creeper in several of the shots you sent. Regardless of what you do this year, more weeds will follow, that is the nature of the beast. A good layer of mulch and a few rounds with the hoe or herbicide will help annually. To make your life easier, concentrate your efforts for now on where the wedding party will be and don’t try to tackle the entire yard at once. Bring in some beautiful containers and judiciously spread them out and your party will be a success!


(May 2009)

QuestionHelp!! We planted a sugar maple tree last May. It is about 10 to 12' tall. The leaves fell off early & so far this year we have not had any new leaves. How do we tell if it is dead or not? What should we do?

 

AnswerBy now, all trees should have leafed out. If you see no signs of any new growth, I would say it is a goner. Did you water it well last season after you planted? Do you have any idea why the tree defoliated early? Keep in mind that trees utilize a lot of water, but they don’t want to stand in water either—good drainage is essential. Sugar maples are best grown in the northern tier of Arkansas, as they can struggle in hot, dry summers. Last summer, however was milder than most with more than average water, so I would investigate. When you take the tree up, look at the root system—did it grow and expand? Could it have been planted too deep? Before replanting another tree, I would try to get some idea of what happened.


(June 2010)

Question We planted a flowering crab in our back yard here in Springdale, about 5-6 years ago. The Jan 2009 ice storm broke one of the large branches off, but the tree bloomed and seemed to be fine except when looking at it from a certain angle. This year has been a different story. The tree never bloomed and when it leafed out, the leaves are real small, about one fourth the size of the leaves in the past. What do you think is wrong? The tree has leafed out everywhere but just looks plain old BLAH. I would hope that it is not on its deathbed.

AnswerIt doesn't sound good. Check the main trunk for signs of borers. Once a tree is damaged, that is often a calling card for boring insects to attack and finish it off. Obviously it is not getting enough energy up to the top of the tree to form flower buds and full sized leaves. You can try fertilizing and watering this season, but often once major decline starts on a tree there is little you can do to reverse it. Good luck.


(April 2010)

Question I would like your recommendation for a deciduous tree for Fayetteville with a maximum width or span of 20 ft. This is to provide shade for our patio and I would like fall color if possible. The limitation is because our back yard is only about 25 ft. wide from the house to privacy fence.

AnswerThere are several options including gingko, fastigiate European hornbeam or blackgum. All have a narrower growth habit but will still get tall enough to give you shade. The gingko has excellent yellow fall color and the blackgum is brilliant red. The hornbeam is an ok yellow.


(March 2010)

Question I am unable to determine if one of two trees in my front lawn is dead. Both, according to my neighbor, are white oak. One shed all of its leaves in the fall and is now appearing to form sprouts. The other did not shed leaves; they turned brown but still remain. Some of the leaves did fall with the strong winds and rains of the winter. It is difficult for me to determine if there is any sprouting. How long do I wait to see any greenery? With the advancement of springtime, I am anxious to begin working in the lawn, but am fearful that anything done might be upset if the tree has to be removed. I do want to save the tree if possible. I did call my local Cooperative Extension Service, but was advised to wait until spring, that there was no danger of the tree falling. It is very near to the house.

AnswerThe tree that did not shed its leaves is a concern, but you still need to be patient and wait to see if they leaf out this spring or not. We are having a late spring this year, so I wouldn’t make any decisions until mid to late April. Rarely does a tree die and decay enough to fall over in one season. See what happens this spring and then prune out any dead branches or trees. Any idea on what caused the problems? Any recent construction, grade changes, etc?


(September 2007)

QuestionWe are building a new house and there are no trees in the yard. Can you recommend a tree that gives nice shade and grows quickly? When is the best time to plant them?

AnswerThere are quite a few trees that grow quickly and make nice shade trees. Probably the fastest growing tree is the tulip poplar—Liriodendron tulipifera. This tree will be large at maturity, so make sure you have ample room for it to grow. Don’t plant a shade tree any closer than 15 to 20 feet from the foundation, and always look up to avoid power lines before planting. Some other good choices include: Lacebark elm – Ulmus parvifolia, Willow oak – Quercus phellos and Littleleaf Linden – Tilia cordata. In my opinion, the best time to plant a tree is in the fall. Planting in the fall as the trees are going dormant allows the root system to grow and get established without having to supply energy to the rest of the tree. This will give you a stronger tree once the growing season begins. Having said that, be aware that today many trees are containerized, and can be planted 12 months out of the year, as long as you are willing to water.


(July 2007)

QuestionWe planted a weeping willow tree this spring and it has been doing quite well. That is, until my husband completely girdled it with his weed eater. The bark has been broken all around the tree. Do you think it will survive, or should we just dig it up and plant another in the fall?

AnswerLawnmower and weed eater disease get a lot of landscape plants! Let me first forewarn you that weeping willows aren't particularly long-lived trees in Arkansas even without the help of the weed eater. They do need a water source, so if you have a pond or stream on property they will do better than in a standard landscape. If the tree has been girdled to the layer beneath the bark called the cambium layer, chances are good that the tree will die from that point up. That is the area where food and water move up and down the tree and once it is damaged, nothing makes it to the upper portions. You should see wilting and decline fairly soon, especially since it is summer. See what happens. You don't want to replant a tree in the summer anyway. Wait until November. Then, if need be, replant, but consider some other tree species as well.


(August 2006)

Question This 'tree' was here when we moved here two years ago--was about six feet tall, with only foliage. The leaves are compound with extra tissue around the midrib of the leaf. It has a single trunk at the bottom, and between about 18 inches to 2 feet up splits into three branches with the same distance between each branch. Last year it grew more, and only had foliage. This year it developed what we thought would be flowers in early summer, which ended up purple-colored seeds in a grape-like cluster, and is now about twelve feet tall. Do you know what the name of it is? Is it a tree? If so, do you know about how tall it might get? (It right next to a carport and may have to be moved). If it's a bush, we can 'prune it' to control the growth. At first we thought it was a young Mimosa tree, but the leaves are larger that that. Then we thought it might be a Tree of Heaven, but do they produce purple berries?

AnswerIt is a sumac—Rhus copallina. This native plant has one of the most lovely fall colors going, turning a brilliant red, which persists for quite some time. Once the foliage falls off, the fruit persists. The only downside to it is that it can become a bit weedy over time, by spreading out. Some varieties can grow up to twenty feet tall and have the potential to get that wide. It is extremely drought tolerant with few to no pest problems. Just pay attention to eventual spread. I am surprised there is a single trunk. In time, it will start to sucker.


(August 2006)

Question I am having a problem with an oak tree in the back yard. It appears to be dying. It is losing its leaves from top to bottom. Several other trees around it seem to be fine. Another oak nearby already died several years ago. I never water the back yard. There doesn't appear to be any strange bug or disease on the tree. I believe it is a red or scarlet oak. Thanks for any information.

AnswerMany folks are finding leaves falling early this season. If a tree gets stressed, it will start to shut down early. A deciduous tree that sheds leaves early is probably not dead, simply conserving what energy it has. Wait until next spring to see how it leafs out. However when a tree begins to die back a little more each year, the tree may be on its way out. I think you nailed it on the head when you say you never water. Water is the key to a healthy tree. Many folks wonder why trees in the forest survive on whatever is doled out by Mother Nature, but let’s be aware that in the woods, there is usually a heavy canopy with dense shade and a fairly good layer of mulch to help conserve moisture. When we have lawns and or bare ground, there isn't much to offer in the way of moisture retention. Couple that with asphalt, houses covering the roots, and concrete, and you are left with a stressed tree. Lack of water in one season normally won't kill a large, established tree, but repeated years of drought will take their toll. Try aerating the soil and doing some deep soaking waterings. It won't turn the tree around overnight, but with a little TLC it hopefully can recover.


(September 2006)

Question We built a landscape block flower bed approximately 12” high around a large red oak tree 2 years ago. My uncle said we would kill the tree because we used too much dirt and should slowly raise the amount of dirt in the bed. The tree died less than 1 year after we established the raised bed. I did have several red oaks die the previous year due to the "red oak borer insect". My question is this; can you build a raised bed around a mature oak tree without killing it? My wife and I have another tree that we would like to landscape, but do not desire to kill another tree.

AnswerI wish there were an exact formula for the total amount of soil you can build up around an existing tree. Unfortunately, there are too many variables, such as type of tree, soil type, size of bed, etc. As a general rule, we really don't recommend adding more than 1-3 inches of soil around an existing tree, and even that in a limited fashion. If the flower bed is relatively small, it usually isn't a major cause of concern. Keep in mind that a tree has an extensive root network, and that the feeder roots should be far and wide under a trees canopy. If the bed is small and not overly deep, I would suggest going for it. I would avoid piling up huge amounts of soil next to the tree trunk as excess moisture on the trunk can lead to decay.


(July 2006)

Question I moved to a condo about six years ago. The focal point of the front flower bed was a beautiful, large, healthy Japanese maple. Recently, the tree has changed. Many of the branches are bare, and the leaves are a rusty brown color. A sprinkler system supplies water to the tree. Please help me know what to do to restore/save this once beautiful tree.

AnswerHave the leaves just fallen off, or did it leaf out thinner this season. Usually with tree problems, it is not a matter of something happening overnight, it is more a slow decline. If the tree had an early attack by a leaf spotting disease, it could have defoliated and may be trying to leaf back out. Investigate a bit further. Do you see any holes in the tree trunk, any wounds or growths? Are there leaves littering the ground underneath, or did the branches not leaf out this spring. Get all the information you can. For now, keeping it watered should help.


(November 2005) During a mid-September hike in the Hurricane Creek Wilderness Area, we discovered some ripe pawpaws, the first I have come across in many years. We tasted them, bringing back nice childhood memories. I saved some seeds, which I now have in my windowsill. I would like to try to grow a pawpaw tree, just as a novelty. How and when should one plant the seeds? What kind of soil is best? I do understand that this plant needs partial shade, being an understory plant. Does it have any other special requirements?

AnswerUnfortunately, germination is somewhat erratic on pawpaw seeds. They must go through a cool, moist period known as stratification. Get a plastic bag, fill it with moist potting soil and place the seeds inside. Then put the plastic bag in your refrigerator for two to three months. After this period you can pot up the seeds, lightly covering them with soil. Be patient. You probably won't get 100% germination, but hope for the best. You can buy pawpaw trees from some local nurseries.


(January 06)

Question The front of our home faces southwest and receives full afternoon sun in the summer. There is a raised bed that contains a crepe myrtle surrounded by compacta holly. I recently removed a Japanese maple the previous owner had planted in the same bed. Size wise it was dwarfed by the crepe myrtle and temperature wise it baked all summer. I considered another crepe myrtle but wanted something evergreen to provide some winter color / interest and shelter for birds. There is good but not deep soil in the bed and it is irrigated. The plant would be in front of a brick wall that radiates heat from the summer sun. I would like something that would grow to 15 to 20' and not more than 10-12' in diameter. I have considered several tree form hollies. Is there a particular variety you would recommend or some other type of ornamental tree / shrub that thrives in full sun and heat?

AnswerYou were wise to move the Japanese maple. They don't thrive in afternoon sun, especially during a particularly hot summer. There are several options for you. A multi-trunked yaupon holly can be nice, or the deciduous holly--while not evergreen, the berries give good winter color. A Little Gem southern magnolia is a nice smaller evergreen plant with fantastic white summer blooms. If left unchecked it can grow taller, but it is a slow grower and quite compact when young. A large shrub which if left to grow could become tree-like that is gaining in popularity is the Loropetalum. It is evergreen with purple foliage year-round, loves the sun and has bright pink spring flowers.


All links to external sites open in a new window. You may return to the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture web site by closing this window when you are finished. We do not guarantee the accuracy of the information, or the accessibility for people with disabilities listed at any external site.

Links to commercial sites are provided for information and convenience only. Inclusion of sites does not imply University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture's approval of their product or service to the exclusion of others that may be similar, nor does it guarantee or warrant the standard of the products or service offered.

The mention of any commercial product in this web site does not imply its endorsement by the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture over other products not named, nor does the omission imply that they are not satisfactory.