UACES Facebook Health & Safety
DIAGNOSIS -- The National Wildlife Health Center conducts diagnostic testing on a number of wildlife diseases.  (Image courtesy U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center.)

Health & Safety

Wildlife Diseases

Wildlife contract diseases and illnesses, most of which are not transmitted to people.  Wildlife diseases which pose a health and safety concern are:

  • Avian influenza – wild birds (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
  • Brucellosis – feral hogs (USDA Wildlife Services)
  • Hansen’s Disease  (leprosy)- armadillos (US Department of Health and Human Services)
  • Histoplasmosis – bird and bat droppings (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
  • Rabies – skunks, bats, domestic pets  (Arkansas Department of Health)
  • Tick-borne diseasessome studies associate high deer densities or rodent populations with tick-borne diseases; cottontails carry  ticks with tularemia(Arkansas Department of Health)

Through supplemental feeding, sometimes humans unintentionally create environments which facilitate transfer of wildlife diseases and wildlife deaths.  Such toxicoses are:

FUNGUS AMONG US -- This Little Brown Bat has contracted a deadly fungus associated with white-nose syndrome. (Image courtesy Al Hicks, NY DEC.)

The Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study has conducted diagnostic tests on wildlife since 1957 to (1) detect causes of sickness and death in wildlife, (2) define the impact of diseases and parasites upon wild animal populations, (3) delineate disease interrelationships between wildlife and domestic livestock, and (4) determine the role of wildlife in transmission of human diseases.  SCWDC works primarily with state wildlife agencies to monitor wildlife diseases in the south.

The National Wildlife Health Center conducts research and diagnostic testing to identify emerging wildlife diseases. Research objectives focus on the development of practical methods for wildlife disease diagnosis and mitigation of wildlife losses.

The Arkansas Livestock and Poultry Commission's Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Little Rock charges a fee for each type of test, and has specific requirements regarding collection and shipment of deceased animals to undergo necropsy.  Check their website or call the laboratory for information and testing fees at 501-907-2430.

 

 

 Wildlife Attacks on Humans

Deadly encounters with potentially dangerous wildlife such as black bears, alligators, snakes, coyotes, bobcats, mountain lions and feral hogs are rare in Arkansas. 

Black bears and alligatorsBlack bears and alligators will typically flee from people, but can become dangerous when an individual animal gets accustomed or habituated to humans who intentionally or unintentionally feed them.  It may seem fun and dangerously exciting at the time to feed bears or alligators by hand, but once a predator loses its fear of humans, chances of an attack increase significantly.  Keep trash cans secured and feed pets indoors to avoid such encounters.

Venomous snakes – The majority of snakes in Arkansas are non-venomous.  Of the six venomous snakes which are native to Arkansas, the Arkansas Department of Health reports none have caused a human death in Arkansas since the 1960’s.  If bitten by a snake, immediately seek medical attention. 

Coyotes and bobcats - Although feared, attacks by coyotes and bobcats are extremely rare, though small pets can become easy prey.  Where coyotes are prevalent, keep pets indoors and supervise young children (e.g., toddlers) as a precaution, especially at dusk, to avoid an attack. 

Mountain lions (also called cougars) – Occasionally, evidence of mountain lion attacks on livestock are reported, but no attacks on humans have occurred in Arkansas.

Feral hogs – Although they look ferocious, feral hogs or wild pigs rarely attack humans.  Those rare instances when they have attacked are when cornered or injured.

CAUTION -- Wildlife-vehicle collisions cost Arkansas motorists dearly each year.  (Image courtesy Kevin Quinn, University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture.) 

Collisions with Vehicles

Collisions with large species such as deer, elk, black bear, and alligators can result in economic loss and on rare occasion, death to people.  Many human deaths associated with wildlife-vehicle collisions occur when the driver attempts to avoid the collision and instead runs into an immovable object. 

If wildlife should cross a roadway,

  • slow down
  • stay on the road
  • avoid swerving

A study about deer –vehicle collisions in Arkansas reported such accidents “are a very visible negative consequence of an increasing human population combined with an abundant population of white-tailed deer (Tappe 2005). 

Publications

  • Chronic Wasting Disease in Deer and Elk in Arkansas

    Chronic wasting disease affects the nervous system of deer and elk, and was first discovered in Arkansas in 2016. Safety precautions are recommended when harvesting and processing deer and elk.

  • Rabies

    Rabies is a viral disease of the central nervous system of mammals. In Arkansas, rabies lives and circulates in wild skunks and bats. Any mammal can become infected with rabies, including domestic pets such as dogs and cats, agricultural animals such as cows and horses, and people when they are exposed to rabid wildlife.

  • Human Brucellosis Risk from Feral Swine

    Feral swine can carry and transfer this disease to people. Clinical signs, treatment, and safety measures are reviewed.